Buying An Older Tractor
By Chris Pratt
For the first-time buyer
older tractors are very tempting. They cost less than the tax on a new tractor (at least where we live). They
have the weight to do the job. They are simple and understandable. They even have a history and can be restored
to become a major source of pride and enjoyment. But how do you know what to buy and how do you make the right
There is a surprising number of machines available in every shape and size imaginable. Like most things in life,
your needs have a lot to do with what you should look for. You know your needs but you will have to translate them
into something tangible that will allow you to make a clear headed decision.
Tractors Bought for Working
Those that need a machine for working their acreage are in a better position to get what they need quickly but
it is amazing how many folks buy the wrong type of tractor and become disillusioned with old machines. The first
thing to look at is not the tractor but rather the lay of your land and the implements you will need. If you have
visions of cultivating corn after it is "knee high in July" but buy a Ford N-series or Case VAO, you
will learn just how far corn stalks bend because these machines may be too low to the ground for your expectations
(and your corn). On the other hand if you have side-hills to traverse, like we do in the Northwest, you may be
slightly displeased with your nifty hi-crop Farmall or AC (did I mention terrified every time you have to use it
because of the deadly possibly of a hillside rollover). On your implements, if you look at the implement first,
you can calculate your horsepower requirements and make sure the tractor model you select has the weight and power
to do the job. If you see the need for a 10 foot disk harrow, you will be unhappy with a Farmall Cub (or should
I say immobile, these don't have the power to pull that large of disk). Thorough research is good insurance in
avoiding the wrong purchase.
Once the model is selected, your preview of the available machines is almost entirely an exercise in mechanics,
the cosmetics should probably be placed low on the list. Many good working tractors haven't seen paint in years
(though I am not an advocate of this practice) and have some of the ugliest welds in the oddest places. Your machine
must be mechanically sound from the onset and have few problems in the near future (at least till winter when you
have time to work on it). Even if you are willing to work on it right away, you probably won't be interested in
a complete restoration for sometime and need to minimize the number of upfront jobs. It has to start easily, run
well when hot, charge the electrical system, pick up implements, brake well, steer well, and get good traction.
This conjures up the image of going out for a preview armed with a toolbox containing a compression tester, expensive
Fluke digital multimeter, hydrometer, and other specialty tools. Unfortunately most of us don't own them and wouldn't
even know what to do with them. We have to rely on our eyes, ears, and common sense. Anyway the tools would end
up costing more than the tractor.
Even though you are probably going to use your basic senses and common sense to evaluate the machine, you should
be armed with the critical knowledge on the operation of the tractor you are previewing. Borrow or purchase the
owners manual prior to going out for the preview so you are familiar with its operation and basic specs.
Here is a partial checklist for a simplistic preview of a working tractor:
- Does it start easily? - A tractor that starts easily may eliminate several items in one shot. Good Battery,
compression, ignition wiring / magneto, tune up, fuel flow, carb are implied (not guaranteed) by this. If it doesn't
start easily, it still may be a good machine but you won't escape some work on it. If the tractor is out and warmed
up prior to your arrival, you lose an important checklist item, namely the cold start.
- Does it run well when hot - Getting it hot is a must if you want to find out how it will work after you plowed
the first row. There are simple and complex problems that can cause the tractor to run poorly after it warms up.
Plan on spending a half-hour running it. After running look for leaks, both oil and antifreeze. Lastly after warm
up, shut it down and see if it will start.
- Do the brakes work well - Although the brakes are inexpensive to replace, they are inaccessible on many tractors
and will require extensive teardown to get the new ones in. You can test the brakes by locking one wheel and cranking
the steering to that side. The tractor should spin and the wheel should not rotate.
- Does it smoke - Blue smoke indicates many potentially difficult problems like rings, pistons, or valve guides.
White or black smoke can frequently be corrected with carburetion or ignition changes but still represent work.
- Does it make clunking noises from inside the engine - A simple ticking from the top of the engine may be a
simple valve adjustment but a deep thunk from the bottom or middle of the engine would indicate very serious and
expensive repairs. The clunk should be more pronounced under load. This may be an indication of problems with the
crankshaft, bearings, or piston rods.
- How does the oil look - After you have run it for awhile, stop the engine and check the oil for foaming or
presence of water. This is a show stopper.
- Is there head seepage - look for signs that fluids are seeping out the head gasket. If the tractor is encrusted
with grease and dirt, it may cover obvious signs of seepage.
- Is the clutch good - the clutch is not that expensive to replace but splitting the tractor in half is beyond
what most folks want to do.
- Check the Charging system - There should be a slight charge shown on the ammeter when the engine is running
and a change in the charging level when the lights are turned on (this indicates that the regulator or resistor
switch and cutout is operating). At running speed, no discharge should be shown.
- Work the hydraulics - Check the full range of the rams by extending them with a load. Let the load sit in the
hold position for a period of time to be sure that there is no leakdown. Chattering noises from the pump while
lifting indicate the pump is getting insufficient flow of hydraulic fluid. The pump will have experienced excessive
wear when run this way for long periods of time and may be ready to fail.
- Look for structural cracks - It takes a bit of time but it is well spent. Go over the cast and steel components
and look for hairline cracks. Again this is not expensive to correct but extremely time consuming and it would
be unwise to work a tractor until such problems are corrected.
If your preview fails in some of these areas, you may still find that the seller is willing to come way down
on price (since you found all the problems). At this point you must determine if you have the time to correct what
you found... and pocket the savings. If your tractor needs are time-critical, pass this one up.
A word of caution. If the tractor is not running the day you preview, you cannot evaluate it. The seller may
say, in all honesty, that everything checked out fine the day it was parked, but when a tractor sits, serious problems
can develop. In such cases, you must start your bidding from nearly scrap level prices since you have no idea what
you're getting into. If you buy many tractors, you will find that this scenario is common.
Know your needs, pocketbook, and what's on the market. Be as knowledgeable on the prospective machine as you can
be through research and conversation and physically check it out to the best of your ability. Remember, your new
tractor will become a part of the family for sometime to come.
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